I have spent hours trying to start this article so it would not be just another article about the importance of exercise, disease prevention, and health. As a trainer, I have always used the analogy of a car engine and your muscle mass to describe burning calories. The larger the car engine (muscle mass), eight cylinders vs. four cylinders, the more gas (calories) you burn to travel the same number of miles. Expanding on this will show the effects of a sedentary lifestyle on the human body.
Think of your body as a shiny new car – your choice. I will use one of my favorites, a 1957 corvette. Let’s set up the analogy to the human body with a list of parts:
· Car: human body
· Gas pump/carburetor: human heart
· Hoses and fuel lines: arteries, veins and lymphatic system
· Gas, oil and other fluids: blood, lymphatic fluid and food/nutrition
· Number of engine cylinders: muscle mass
· Engine/computer system: brain
· Driving: exercise
· Mechanic: doctors
Sixty years ago, this was a brand new car with a clean engine, new tires, and a pretty new paint job. It ran like a dream, and the owner was happy to drive it every day. By driving the car every day (exercise), the engine (brain) would get the gas, oil and other fluids (blood and bodily fluids) pumping through the car (body) to move the cylinders (muscles) and make the tires move the car. Everything would work well if the owner made sure the fluids were kept clean, gas tank was filled (nutrition), and the car was brought in to the mechanic (doctor) for regular tune ups. Rarely did the corvette need to go to the mechanic (doctor) for more than regular visits (annual checkups).
As the years passed, the owner’s needs changed, family size grew, and this shiny new car spent more time in the garage (sedentary). The car was not driven (exercised) every day, and soon, things began to break. The battery (motivation) died and had to be replaced. Once the car started, she ran well, but there seemed to always be something that needed to be checked. Annual tune ups were no longer good enough.
By now, the corvette had logged thousands of miles; hoses and tires needed to be replaced, and other parts began to show wear (signs of aging including sports injuries, etc.). The paint became a little dull (body added a few pounds) and didn’t quite have the sex appeal as in years past. Trips to the mechanic became more common because of age issues with the car.
Eventually, to keep the car on the road, expensive replacement parts needed to be found. The type of fuel used when the car was new was no longer available and special additives (drugs) were needed in order for it to run properly. The end of the corvette’s days was slowly approaching. The lack of use (exercise)
Use caution for heavy lifting and isometric resistance exercises
60-75% 1 RM
All major muscle groups - Reduces Systolic BP^^ 4-9 mmHg
- Reduces weight, which results in additional SBP reduction
- Reduces vasoconstriction - Reduces peripheral vascular resistance High Cholesterol
Dyslipidemia 40-75% HR
40-70% HR*** - Reduces LDL 4-7%^^^
- Increases HDL 4-25% **
- Reduces adipose fat Pulmonary Disease Start with 3-5 days/wk working towards 5 days/ wk
Intensity will be individually determined based on individual’s response.
Individually determined based on individual’s response. Depends on disease, severity and individual responses Diabetes 5+ days/week Varies for Type I and Type II 2 days/week
Varies per individual - Enhances insulin sensitivity
- Increases cardiovascular fitness
- Improves glycemic control Arthritis, Osteo and Rheumatoid 3-5 days/wk
30 min or more
Intensity varies by Individual. Rhythmic large muscle groups – walking, cycling, water workouts ++ 2-3 days/wk working all major muscle groups – 8-15 reps
Intensity will be based on individual level+++ - Improves range of motion, flexibility, aerobic endurance, muscle strength+++ was too much and the gas/fuel pump and lines rotted (atherosclerosis). The car needed a whole new engine. At that point the cost of upkeep became very high (increasing medical cost of aging).
This is what happens to your body over time.
Study after study shows the importance of movement and activity in our lives. Not only for weight control, but for heart health, brain activity, muscle function and strength, controlling our body functions, and overall wellbeing. See below for a table on common diseases and the impact exercise can have to help prevent, postpone and control symptoms and responses. Just like cars, our bodies are born to run.
^Repetition maximum (RM) is the most you can lift once. So, when it says 30-40% 1-RM, that means for your set of weightlifting, you should use a weight that is 30-40% of the most you can lift once.
^^Systolic blood pressure (SBP) is the bottom blood pressure number.
^^^LDL is bad cholesterol. HDL is good cholesterol.
*LaForge, R., M.S. (2015). Coronary Heart Disease. In Medical Exercise Specialist Manual (p. 202). San Diego, CA: American Council on Exercise
**LaForge, R. M.S. (2015) Blood Lipid Disorders, in Medical Exercise Specialist Manual (p. 224) San Diego, CA: American Council on Exercise
***Galati, T., M.A. (2015). Applying the ACE Integrated Fitness Training Model in The Medical Exercise Setting In Medical Exercise Specialist Manual (p. 50). San Diego, CA: American Council on Exercise
$ LaForge, R., M.S. (2015). Coronary Heart Disease. In Medical Exercise Specialist Manual (p. 188). San Diego, CA: American Council on Exercise.
$$ Kenney, W.L., Ph.D., & Alexander, L.M., Ph.D., (2015). Hypertension in Medical Exercise Specialist Manual (p. 254, 259, 264). San Diego, CA: American Council on Exercise
+ Riddell, M., PhD, & Perkins, B. A., M.D., M.P.H., FRCP. (2009). Exercise and Glucose Metabolism in Persons with Diabetes Mellitus: Perspectives on the Role for Continuous Glucose Monitoring. Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology From Basic Science to Clinical Practice, 914-923. Retrieved March 11, 2017, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2769951/. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2769951/
++C. N. (n.d.). How to Start an Exercise Program. Retrieved March 12, 2017, from http://www.arthritis.org/living-with-arthritis/exercise/how-to/starting-exercise-program.php
+++ Aronen, J.G., M.D.,FACSM & Lorenz, K.A., Ph.D., CSCS, NSCA-CPT, (2015) Arthritis in Medical Exercise Specialist Manual (p 544). San Diego, CA. American Council on Exercise
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